Science current issue 
  • The tangled tale of Kilaueas 2018 eruption as told by geochemical monitoring 

    Changes in magma chemistry that affect eruptive behavior occur during many volcanic eruptions, but typical analytical techniques are too slow to contribute to hazard monitoring. We used rapid energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis to measure diagnostic elements in lava samples within a few hours of collection during the 2018 Kīlauea eruption. The geochemical data provided important information for field crews and civil authorities in advance of changing hazards during the eruption. The appearance of hotter magma was recognized several days before the onset of voluminous eruptions of fast-moving flows that destroyed hundreds of homes. We identified, in near real-time, interactions between older, colder, stored magma—including the unexpected eruption of andesite—and hotter magma delivered during dike emplacement.

  • Getting the EPA back on track 
  • News at a glance 
  • Europe to lead in monitoring carbon from space 
  • Beset by neural tube defects, Ethiopia may fortify salt 
  • Italy set to create {euro}300 million research funding agency 
  • Institute that aims to reshape health care seeks renewal 
  • Nitrogen crisis threatens Dutch environment--and economy 
  • Ready to retire? 
  • Wishlist-worthy books for young readers 
  • Close-up view of an active asteroid 
  • Lymphatic vessels as a stem cell niche 
  • Folding unpredicted 
  • Lasting signature of forest fragmentation 
  • Ushering along B cells to neutralize HIV 
  • Biocatalytic cascades go viral 
  • Calderas collapse as magma flows into rifts 
  • Algorithms on regulatory lockdown in medicine 
  • Wind energy: A human challenge 
  • Wind energy: An ecological challenge 
  • Protecting Patagonian peatlands in Chile 
  • Editor's Note 
  • Stem cells reshape a lymphatic niche 
  • Vulnerability to habitat fragmentation 
  • Maximal efficiency from enzyme cascades 
  • Transmitting quantum states 
  • Tracking excitations 
  • Sensing light without forming images 
  • A childhood tumor--from the beginning 
  • Finding tumor cells and killing them, too 
  • Here comes the flood 
  • Engineering better bnAbs 
  • Bennu ejects material from its surface 
  • Caldera collapse and flank eruption 
  • A timely look into electron-phonon coupling 
  • Divacancies in a diode 
  • Regulating synaptic signals 
  • Translating into a bigger pancreas 
  • Putting JNK1 on the immunodeficiency map 
  • Epigenetic plasticity 
  • More DC subtypes revealed 
  • Stabilizing cell-type ratios 
  • Delicate dancing in the liver 
  • Better fatigue resistance at low cost 
  • Imaging heavy Dirac fermions 
  • Graduate students under pressure 
  • Stem cell-driven lymphatic remodeling coordinates tissue regeneration 

    Tissues rely on stem cells (SCs) for homeostasis and wound repair. SCs reside in specialized microenvironments (niches) whose complexities and roles in orchestrating tissue growth are still unfolding. Here, we identify lymphatic capillaries as critical SC-niche components. In skin, lymphatics form intimate networks around hair follicle (HF) SCs. When HFs regenerate, lymphatic–SC connections become dynamic. Using a mouse model, we unravel a secretome switch in SCs that controls lymphatic behavior. Resting SCs express angiopoietin-like protein 7 (Angptl7), promoting lymphatic drainage. Activated SCs switch to Angptl4, triggering transient lymphatic dissociation and reduced drainage. When lymphatics are perturbed or the secretome switch is disrupted, HFs cycle precociously and tissue regeneration becomes asynchronous. In unearthing lymphatic capillaries as a critical SC-niche element, we have learned how SCs coordinate their activity across a tissue.

  • Electrical and optical control of single spins integrated in scalable semiconductor devices 

    Spin defects in silicon carbide have the advantage of exceptional electron spin coherence combined with a near-infrared spin-photon interface, all in a material amenable to modern semiconductor fabrication. Leveraging these advantages, we integrated highly coherent single neutral divacancy spins in commercially available p-i-n structures and fabricated diodes to modulate the local electrical environment of the defects. These devices enable deterministic charge-state control and broad Stark-shift tuning exceeding 850 gigahertz. We show that charge depletion results in a narrowing of the optical linewidths by more than 50-fold, approaching the lifetime limit. These results demonstrate a method for mitigating the ubiquitous problem of spectral diffusion in solid-state emitters by engineering the electrical environment while using classical semiconductor devices to control scalable, spin-based quantum systems.

  • Direct determination of mode-projected electron-phonon coupling in the time domain 

    Ultrafast spectroscopies have become an important tool for elucidating the microscopic description and dynamical properties of quantum materials. In particular, by tracking the dynamics of nonthermal electrons, a material’s dominant scattering processes can be revealed. Here, we present a method for extracting the electron-phonon coupling strength in the time domain, using time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (TR-ARPES). This method is demonstrated in graphite, where we investigate the dynamics of photoinjected electrons at the point, detecting quantized energy-loss processes that correspond to the emission of strongly coupled optical phonons. We show that the observed characteristic time scale for spectral weight transfer mediated by phonon-scattering processes allows for the direct quantitative extraction of electron-phonon matrix elements for specific modes.

  • Extinction filters mediate the global effects of habitat fragmentation on animals 

    Habitat loss is the primary driver of biodiversity decline worldwide, but the effects of fragmentation (the spatial arrangement of remaining habitat) are debated. We tested the hypothesis that forest fragmentation sensitivity—affected by avoidance of habitat edges—should be driven by historical exposure to, and therefore species’ evolutionary responses to disturbance. Using a database containing 73 datasets collected worldwide (encompassing 4489 animal species), we found that the proportion of fragmentation-sensitive species was nearly three times as high in regions with low rates of historical disturbance compared with regions with high rates of disturbance (i.e., fires, glaciation, hurricanes, and deforestation). These disturbances coincide with a latitudinal gradient in which sensitivity increases sixfold at low versus high latitudes. We conclude that conservation efforts to limit edges created by fragmentation will be most important in the world’s tropical forests.

  • Ultrafast stimulated emission microscopy of single nanocrystals 

    Single-molecule detection is a powerful method used to distinguish different species and follow time trajectories within the ensemble average. However, such detection capability requires efficient emitters and is prone to photobleaching, and the slow, nanosecond spontaneous emission process only reports on the lowest excited state. We demonstrate direct detection of stimulated emission from individual colloidal nanocrystals at room temperature while simultaneously recording the depleted spontaneous emission, enabling us to trace the carrier population through the entire photocycle. By capturing the femtosecond evolution of the stimulated emission signal, together with the nanosecond fluorescence, we can disentangle the ultrafast charge trajectories in the excited state and determine the populations that experience stimulated emission, spontaneous emission, and excited-state absorption processes.

  • Transmitting the quantum state of electrons across a metallic island with Coulomb interaction 

    The Coulomb interaction generally limits the quantum propagation of electrons. However, it can also provide a mechanism to transfer their quantum state over larger distances. Here, we demonstrate such a form of electron teleportation across a metallic island. This effect originates from the low-temperature freezing of the island’s charge which, in the presence of a single connected electronic channel, enforces a one-to-one correspondence between incoming and outgoing electrons. Such faithful quantum state imprinting is established between well-separated injection and emission locations and evidenced through two-path interferences in the integer quantum Hall regime. The additional quantum phase of 2Q/e, where e is the electron charge, may allow for decoherence-free entanglement of propagating electrons, and notably of flying qubits.

  • Embryonal precursors of Wilms tumor 

    Adult cancers often arise from premalignant clonal expansions. Whether the same is true of childhood tumors has been unclear. To investigate whether Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma; a childhood kidney cancer) develops from a premalignant background, we examined the phylogenetic relationship between tumors and corresponding normal tissues. In 14 of 23 cases studied (61%), we found premalignant clonal expansions in morphologically normal kidney tissues that preceded tumor development. These clonal expansions were defined by somatic mutations shared between tumor and normal tissues but absent from blood cells. We also found hypermethylation of the H19 locus, a known driver of Wilms tumor development, in 58% of the expansions. Phylogenetic analyses of bilateral tumors indicated that clonal expansions can evolve before the divergence of left and right kidney primordia. These findings reveal embryonal precursors from which unilateral and multifocal cancers develop.

  • Functional diversity of human intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells 

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) are a subset of cells that participate in image-forming and non–image-forming visual responses. Although both functional and morphological subtypes of ipRGCs have been described in rodents, parallel functional subtypes have not been identified in primate or human retinas. In this study, we used a human organ donor preparation method to measure human ipRGCs’ photoresponses. We discovered three functional ipRGC subtypes with distinct sensitivities and responses to light. The response of one ipRGC subtype appeared to depend on exogenous chromophore supply, and this response is conserved in both human and mouse retinas. Rods and cones also provided input to ipRGCs; however, each subtype integrated outer retina light signals in a distinct fashion.

  • Design of an in vitro biocatalytic cascade for the manufacture of islatravir 

    Enzyme-catalyzed reactions have begun to transform pharmaceutical manufacturing, offering levels of selectivity and tunability that can dramatically improve chemical synthesis. Combining enzymatic reactions into multistep biocatalytic cascades brings additional benefits. Cascades avoid the waste generated by purification of intermediates. They also allow reactions to be linked together to overcome an unfavorable equilibrium or avoid the accumulation of unstable or inhibitory intermediates. We report an in vitro biocatalytic cascade synthesis of the investigational HIV treatment islatravir. Five enzymes were engineered through directed evolution to act on non-natural substrates. These were combined with four auxiliary enzymes to construct islatravir from simple building blocks in a three-step biocatalytic cascade. The overall synthesis requires fewer than half the number of steps of the previously reported routes.

  • Structures of the AMPA receptor in complex with its auxiliary subunit cornichon 

    In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) form complexes with their auxiliary subunits and mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission. Signals transduced by these complexes are critical for synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. The two major categories of AMPAR auxiliary subunits are transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs) and cornichon homologs (CNIHs); these subunits share little homology and play distinct roles in controlling ion channel gating and trafficking of AMPAR. Here, I report high-resolution cryo–electron microscopy structures of AMPAR in complex with CNIH3. Contrary to its predicted membrane topology, CNIH3 lacks an extracellular domain and instead contains four membrane-spanning helices. The protein-protein interaction interface that dictates channel modulation and the lipids surrounding the complex are revealed. These structures provide insights into the molecular mechanism for ion channel modulation and assembly of AMPAR/CNIH3 complexes.

  • New Products 
  • A mother's guilt 
  • Magma reservoir failure and the onset of caldera collapse at Kilauea Volcano in 2018 

    Caldera-forming eruptions are among Earth’s most hazardous natural phenomena, yet the architecture of subcaldera magma reservoirs and the conditions that trigger collapse are poorly understood. Observations from the formation of a 0.8–cubic kilometer basaltic caldera at Kīlauea Volcano in 2018 included the draining of an active lava lake, which provided a window into pressure decrease in the reservoir. We show that failure began after <4% of magma was withdrawn from a shallow reservoir beneath the volcano’s summit, reducing its internal pressure by ~17 megapascals. Several cubic kilometers of magma were stored in the reservoir, and only a fraction was withdrawn before the end of the eruption. Thus, caldera formation may begin after withdrawal of only small amounts of magma and may end before source reservoirs are completely evacuated.

  • Joint statement on EPA proposed rule and public availability of data (2019) 
  • Episodes of particle ejection from the surface of the active asteroid (101955) Bennu 

    Active asteroids are those that show evidence of ongoing mass loss. We report repeated instances of particle ejection from the surface of (101955) Bennu, demonstrating that it is an active asteroid. The ejection events were imaged by the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security–Regolith Explorer) spacecraft. For the three largest observed events, we estimated the ejected particle velocities and sizes, event times, source regions, and energies. We also determined the trajectories and photometric properties of several gravitationally bound particles that orbited temporarily in the Bennu environment. We consider multiple hypotheses for the mechanisms that lead to particle ejection for the largest events, including rotational disruption, electrostatic lofting, ice sublimation, phyllosilicate dehydration, meteoroid impacts, thermal stress fracturing, and secondary impacts.

  • A generalized HIV vaccine design strategy for priming of broadly neutralizing antibody responses 

    Vaccine induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to HIV remains a major challenge. Germline-targeting immunogens hold promise for initiating the induction of certain bnAb classes; yet for most bnAbs, a strong dependence on antibody heavy chain complementarity-determining region 3 (HCDR3) is a major barrier. Exploiting ultradeep human antibody sequencing data, we identified a diverse set of potential antibody precursors for a bnAb with dominant HCDR3 contacts. We then developed HIV envelope trimer–based immunogens that primed responses from rare bnAb-precursor B cells in a mouse model and bound a range of potential bnAb-precursor human naïve B cells in ex vivo screens. Our repertoire-guided germline-targeting approach provides a framework for priming the induction of many HIV bnAbs and could be applied to most HCDR3-dominant antibodies from other pathogens.

  • Comment on "The role of electron-electron interactions in two-dimensional Dirac fermions" 

    Tang et al. (Research Articles, 10 August 2018, p. 570) report on the properties of Dirac fermions with both on-site and Coulomb interactions. The substantial decrease, up to ~40%, of the Fermi velocity of Dirac fermions with on-site interaction is inconsistent with the numerical data near the Gross-Neveu quantum critical point. This results from an inappropriate finite-size extrapolation.

  • Targeted selection of HIV-specific antibody mutations by engineering B cell maturation 
  • Response to Comment on "The role of electron-electron interactions in two-dimensional Dirac fermions" 

    Hesselmann et al. question one of our conclusions: the suppression of Fermi velocity at the Gross-Neveu critical point for the specific case of vanishing long-range interactions and at zero energy. The possibility they raise could occur in any finite-size extrapolation of numerical data. Although we cannot definitively rule out this possibility, we provide mathematical bounds on its likelihood.

  • Cyclic lava effusion during the 2018 eruption of Kilauea Volcano 

    Lava flows present a recurring threat to communities on active volcanoes, and volumetric eruption rate is one of the primary factors controlling flow behavior and hazard. The time scales and driving forces of eruption rate variability, however, remain poorly understood. In 2018, a highly destructive eruption occurred on the lower flank of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i, where the primary vent exhibited substantial cyclic eruption rates on both short (minutes) and long (tens of hours) time scales. We used multiparameter data to show that the short cycles were driven by shallow outgassing, whereas longer cycles were pressure-driven surges in magma supply triggered by summit caldera collapse events 40 kilometers upslope. The results provide a clear link between eruption rate fluctuations and their driving processes in the magmatic system.